Last updated on: 12/4/2018 | Author:

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):

  1. Carl E. Van Horn, Herbert A. Schaffner, Work in America: An Encyclopedia of History, Policy, and Society, 2003
  2. Daniel Weisberg, Susan Sexton, Jennifer Mulher, David Keeling, “The Widget Effect: Our National Failure to Acknowledge and Act on Differences in Teacher Effectiveness,”, June 1, 2009
  3. Nanette Asimov, “Teacher Job Security Fuels Prop. 74 Battle,” San Francisco Chronicle, Sep. 30, 2005
  4. Patrick McGuinn, “Ringing the Bell for K-12 Teacher Tenure Reform,”, Feb. 2010
  5. “Special Statewide Election – November 8, 2005: State Ballot Measures,”, Dec. 19, 2005
  6. Steven Brill, “The Rubber Room,” New Yorker, Aug. 31, 2009
  7. Jennifer Medina, “Last Day of ‘Rubber Rooms’ for Teachers,”, June 28, 2010
  8. Wanda Marie Thibodeaux, “Pro & Cons of Teacher Tenure,” (accessed Dec. 28, 2010)
  9. Ksenia Galouchko, “Bloomberg’s New Tenure Plan Triggers Demo and Debate,”, Dec. 16, 2010
  10. M.J. Stephey, “A Brief History of Tenure,”, Nov. 17, 2008
  11. David McGrath, “Teacher-Tenure Proposal Would Weaken Florida Education,” Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Apr. 15, 2010
  12. Stephanie Banchero, “Teacher-Tenure Row Reheats,”, May 3, 2010
  13. Sylvia A. Allegretto, Sean P. Corcoran, Lawrence Mishel, “The Teaching Penalty: Teacher Pay Losing Ground,”, Mar. 2008
  14. Heather Wolpert-Gawron, “The Truth about Teacher Tenure,”, Dec. 21, 2009
  15. National Council on Teacher Quality, “State Teacher Policy Yearbook: What States Can Do to Retain Effective New Teachers,”, 2008
  16. “Official Voter Registration Guide – Arguments and Rebuttals: Proposition 74,” (accessed Dec. 28, 2010)
  17. Sam Dillon, “A School Chief Takes On Tenure, Stirring a Fight,”, Nov. 12, 2008
  18. Thomas A. Kersten, “Teacher Tenure: Illinois School Board Presidents’ Perspectives and Suggestions for Improvement,” Planning and Changing, Oct. 1, 2006
  19. Fritz Machlup, “In Defense of Academic Tenure,” The Case for Tenure, Ed. Matthew W. Finkin, 1996
  20. Julie Mack, “Tenure Reform: Union Says It’s Open to Streamlining Process for Firing Educators,” Michigan Live website,, Nov. 22, 2010
  21. Michelle Rhee and Adrian Fenty, “The Education Manifesto,”, Oct. 30, 2010
  22. Adolfo Guzman-Lopez, “ACLU Sues LAUSD to Stop Teacher Layoffs,” KPCC-FM Los Angeles website,, Feb. 24, 2010
  23. Associated Press, “LAUSD, ACLU Reach ‘Groundbreaking’ Agreement on Layoffs,”, Oct. 6, 2010
  24. “Tenure Reforms and NJSBA Policy: Report of the NJSBA Tenure Task Force,” New Jersey School Boards Association website,, June 1994
  25. Scott McLeod, JD, PhD, “Does Teacher Tenure Have a Future?,”, Apr. 19, 2010
  26. Evan Thomas and Pat Wingert, “Why We Must Fire Bad Teachers,”, Mar. 6, 2010
  27. “Rhee-Forming D.C. Schools,”, Nov. 22, 2008
  28. Rose Garrett, “What Is Teacher Tenure?,” (accessed Dec. 30, 2010)
  29. Dan Goldhaber and Michael Hansen, “Is It Just a Bad Class?: Assessing the Stability of Measured Teacher Performance,”, Nov. 21, 2008
  30. Marcus A. Winters, “Challenging Tenure in D.C.,”, Nov. 5, 2008
  31. Steve Farkas and Ann Duffett, “Cracks in the Ivory Tower? The Views of Education Professors Circa 2010,”, Sep. 2010
  32. William G. Howell, Martin R. West, and Paul E. Peterson, “The Public Weighs in on School Reform,” EducationNext, Fall 2011
  33. Marguerite Roza, “Must Enrollment Declines Spell Financial Chaos for Districts?,” Center on Reinventing Public Education website,, Aug. 29, 2006
  34. George A. Clowes, “Teachers Like Tenure but Admit Its Flaws,”, July 1, 2003
  35. David B. Tyack, Robert Lowe, Elisabeth Hansot, Public Schools in Hard Times: the Great Depression and Recent Years, 1984
  36. National Commission on Excellence in Education, “A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform,”, Apr. 1983
  37. Walter C. Jones, “Barnes Goes on Attack over Teacher Tenure,”, Feb. 4, 2000
  38. US Department of Education, “Race to the Top Program Executive Summary,”, Nov. 2009
  39. Michelle Exstrom, “The A+ Teacher: Deciding Who Is Effective in the Classroom Is Not as Easy as It Seems,”, Sep. 2010
  40. Karen Matthews, “NYC Takes Aim at Teachers’ ‘Tenure for Breathing,'” Associated Press /, Oct. 8, 2010
  41. Beth Barrett, “LAUSD’s Dance of the Lemons,”, Feb. 11, 2010
  42. John Heilemann, “Schools: The Disaster Movie,” New York Magazine, Sep. 5, 2010
  43. New Jersey School Boards Association, “Tenure Reform,”, Sep. 30, 2010
  44. Diane D’Amico, “NJEA Plans to Fight Gov. Christie Over Plan to Eliminate Teacher Tenure,”, Jan. 13, 2010
  45. Kathy Christie and Jennifer Dounay Zinth, “Teacher Tenure or Continuing Contract Laws,”, Aug. 2011
  46. Jennifer Medina, “California Teacher Tenure Laws Ruled Unconstitutional,”, June 10, 2014
  47. National Council on Teacher Quality, “Policy Issue: Tenure, 2015 Tenure” (accessed May 24, 2016)
  48. Sylvia Allegretto and Lawrence Mishel, “The Teacher Pay Penalty Has Hit a New High: Trends in the Teacher Wage and Compensation Gaps through 2017,”, Sep. 5, 2018
  49. National Council on Teacher Quality, “2017 State Teacher Policy Yearbook: National Summary,”, Dec. 2017
  50. Thomas B. Fordham Institute, “Undue Process: Why Bad Teachers in Twenty-Five Diverse Districts Rarely Get Fired,”, Dec. 8, 2016
  51. Susan Edelman, “City Pays Exiled Teachers to Snooze as ‘Rubber Rooms’ Return,”, Jan. 17, 2016
  52. Matthew A. Kraft and Allison F. Gilmour, “Revisiting the Widget Effect: Teacher Evaluation Reforms and the Distribution of Teacher Effectiveness,”, 2017
  53. Martin R. West, Michael B. Henderson, Paul E. Peterson, and Samuel Barrows, “The 2017 EdNext Poll on School Reform: Public Thinking on School Choice, Common Core, Higher Ed, and More,”, 2017
  54. Paul Heiser, “When Tenured Educators Break the Rules, One-Third of Districts Don’t Seek Discipline,”, May 7, 2018
  55. Peter Hancock, “Kansas Supreme Court Upholds Repeal of Teacher Tenure Rights,”, June 15, 2018


Richard T. De George, Academic Freedom and Tenure: Ethical Issues, 1997

Andrew Sloan Draper, Necessary Basis of the Teacher’s Tenure, 1912

The Journal of the National Education Association, Volumes 10-11, 1921

Mary M. Kennedy, Marilyn Cochran-Smith, Teacher Assessment and the Quest for Teacher Quality: A Handbook, 2010

National Education Association, Report of the Committee on Salaries, Tenure, and Pensions of Public School Teachers in the United States to the National Council of Education, July, 1905

Franklin H. Silverman, Teaching for Tenure and Beyond: Strategies for Maximizing Your Student Ratings, 2001

George Skelton, “California Teacher Tenure Finally a Major Election Issue,”, Sep. 10, 2014